عنوان مقاله [English]
The choice of appropriate treatment methods which increase the ability level of the elderly to deal with the physical and mental deficiencies of old age will be a great help to human societies. Therefore, this study was conducted with the aim of comparing the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and spirituality therapy on the meaning of life and wisdom of the elderly. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test-post-test design with two experimental groups and one control group. The statistical population of the research included of the elderly of Tehran in 2022. The sample size of the research consisted of 54 elderly selected by convenience sampling method and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria of the study, and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (MBCT and spiritual therapy) and one control group. Used to collect data were Ardelet’s wisdom and Steger et al.’s meaning of life questionnaires. One of the experimental groups underwent eight 90-minute weekly session of MBCT, and the other group received ten 90-minute weekly sessions of spiritual therapy. The data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in SPSS-24. The results indicated that both MBCT and spiritual therapy are effective on the meaning of life and wisdom of the elderly. However, the effectiveness of the spiritual therapy method on the meaning of life was more than that of the MBCT (P<0.001). Based on the findings of this research, MBCT and spiritual therapy can be used as effective intervention methods to increase the meaning of life and wisdom in the elderly.
Allan, B. A., Bott, E., M., & Suh, H. (2015). Connecting mindfulness and meaning in life: Exploring the role of authenticity. Mindfulness, 6, 996–1003. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671014-0341-z
Ameri, Z., Asgari,P., Heidarei, A., & Bakhtiarpour, S. (2021). Comparison of the effectiveness of spiritual therapy and positive psychology on optimism in patients with leukemia. Journal of Health Research in Community, 7(2),71-61. [Persian]
Ardelt ,M., & Edwards, C. A. (2016). Wisdom at the End of Life: An Analysis of mediating and moderating relations between wisdom and subjective well-Being. The Journals of Gerontology. 71(3), 502–513. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbv051
Ardelt, M .(2003). Empirical Assessment of a Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale, Research on Ageing, 25(3), 275-324.
Ardelt, M., & Jeste, D. V. (2022). Wisdom as a resiliency factor for subjective well-being in later life. Psychosociale & Medicl Rehabilitation [Practice of Clinical Behavioral Medicine and Rehabilitation], 118(2), 13-28.
Askari, M., Mohammadi, H., Radmehr, A., & Hosein, J. (1397). The effect of spiritual–religious psychotherapy on enhancing quality of life and reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression among the elderly. Research on Religion & Health, 4(2), 29-41. https://doi.org/10.22037/ jrrh.v4i2.15595 [Persian]
Asoodeh, M. S., Mohsenzade, F., & Zahrakar, k. (1397). The Effectiveness of life review based group counseling on meaning in life in the Elderly. Aging Psychology, 4(1), 13-26. [Persian]
Barghi Irani, Z., & Dehghan Saber, L. (2020). The Comparison of the effectiveness of mindfulness-based therapy and spiritual therapy on irrational beliefs and anxiety in the older women. Aging Psychology, 6(4), 321- 339. https://doi. org/ 10.22126/JAP.2021.5945.1492 [Persian]
Bernard, M., Strasser, F., Gamondi, C., Braunschweig, G., Forster, M., Kaspers-Elekes, K., Veri, S.W., & Borasio, G. D. (2017). Relationship Between Spirituality, Meaning in Life, Psychological Distress, Wish for Hastened Death, and Their Influence on Quality of Life in Palliative Care Patients. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 54(4), 514-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2017.07.019s
Binnun, L. N., Arbel, K & Dorjee, D. (2021). The Mindfulness Map: A Practical Classification Framework of Mindfulness Practices, Associated Intentions, and Experiential Understandings. Front. Psychol, 12, 24-48. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.727857
Chu, S. T& Mak, W. W. S. (2020). How Mindfulness Enhances Meaning in Life: A Meta-analysis of Correlational Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials. Mindfulness, 11(2), 177-193. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-019-01258-9
Debnath, A., Roy, P. B., & Mukhopadhyay, D. (2022). Examining the influence of spiritual practices on quality of life among older urbanites in an Indian town. Journal of Religion, Spirituality & Aging, 35(2), 305–322. https://doi.org/10.1080/15528030.2022.2032533
Delaware, A. (2016). Theoretical and practical foundations of research in humanities and social sciences. Tehran, Rushd. [Persian]
Dinarvand, N., & Barghi Irani, Z. (2021). The Comparison of the effectiveness of metacognitive therapy and Spiritual therapy on cognitive dissonance and feeling loneliness in the elderly. Aging Psychology, 7(2), 181-197. https://doi.org/10.22126/jap.2021.6334.1520 . [Persian]
Esmaeilpour Dilmaghani, R., Panahali, A., Aghdasi, A., & khademi, A. (2022). The Effectiveness of group logo therapy on death anxiety, feeling of loneliness and meaning of life in the elderly women with fear of coronavirus. Aging Psychology, 8(2), 135-147. [Persian]
Galbraith, Q., Callister, A., & Kelley, H. (2019). Constructing Meaning through Connection: Religious Perspectives on the Purpose of Life. International Journal of Religion & Spirituality in Society, 9(3), 15- 31. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/facpub/5928
Gholammohammadi, H. (2013). The Effectiveness of Religious Component Training on Meaning of Life of Elderly Men Resident in Sanatorium. Journal of Disability Studies, 3(2). 34-42. http://jdisabilstud.org/article-1-338-fa.html [Persian]
Hajatnia, B., Tajeri, B., Haji Alizadeh, K. (2021). The effectiveness of spiritual therapy on the quality of sleep, resilience, and death anxiety of the elderly. Journal of preventive medicine, 8(2), 17-26. URL: http://jpm.hums.ac.ir/article-1-516-fa.html [Persian]
Hashemi Gram Dareh, S., & Yousefi, Z. (2021). The effectiveness of education based on wisdom on the resilience and social skills of girls in the first secondary level of Isfahan city. The fourth international conference of psychology, educational sciences and social studies, Hamadan. [Persian]
Henriksen, D. A., Richardson, C. B. & Shack, C. k. (2020). Mindfulness and creativity: Implications for thinking and learning Thinking Skills and Creativity.Thinking Skills & Creativity, 37, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsc.2020.100689
Hofmann, S. G., & Gómez., A. F. (2018). Mindfulness-Based Interventions for Anxiety and Depression.The Psychiatric clinics of North America, 40(4), 739–749. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psc.2017.08.008
Humboldt, S. V., Mendoza- Ruvalcaba, M. N., Arias-Merino, E . D., Andrea Costa & Cabras, E., Low, G., Leal, I. (2020). Smart technology and the meaning in life of older adults during the Covid-19 public health emergency period: A Cross-cultural qualitative study. International Review of Psychiatry. 32(7-8). 713 -722.
Hupkens, S., Machielse, A., Marleen Goumans, M., & Netherland, P. (2016). Meaning in life of older persons: An Integrative literature review. Nursing Ethics, 25(8), 3-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733016680122
Jahan, F., & Noghabi, R. (2019). The Effect of mindfulness training on moral intelligence, spiritual intelligence and wisdom in the Elderly, Journal of Disability Studies, 9(17), 1-17.URL: http://jdisabilstud.org/article-1-1047-fa.html. [Persian]
Jamshidifar, Z., & lotfi kashani, F. (2020). Comparison of the effectiveness of spiritual therapy and cognitive-behavior therapy on lowering blood cortisol levels in women with breast cancer. Thought & Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 15(55), 37-46. [Persian]
Jeste, D.V., Lee, E. E., Cassidy, C., & Rachel, C., & Others. (2019). the new science of practical wisdom. Perspect Biological medicine, 62(2), 216–236. https://doi.org/1010.1353/pbm.2019.0011
Jeste, D.V., Thomas, M. L., & Liu.J. (2021). Is Spirituality a Component of Wisdom? Study of 1,786 Adults Using Expanded San Diego Wisdom Scale (Jeste-Thomas Wisdom Index). Journal of Psychiatric Research, 132, 174-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.09.033
Jiménez, M. S., Desfilis, E. S., & Serra, E. (2020). Does Christian Spirituality Enhance Psychological Interventions on Forgiveness, Gratitude, and the Meaning of Life? A Quasi-Experimental Intervention with the Elderly and Youth. Nursing Reprt. 2020, 10(2), 182-206. https://doi.org/10.3390/nursrep10020022
Kabatz Yıldız, M., & Orak, O. S. (2023). the effect of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program on the level of perceived stress and geriatric depression in older adults, psychogeriatric, 23( 2), 24-36.https://doi.org/10.1111/psyg.12929
Kao, L. E., Peteet, J. R., & Cook, C. H. (2020). Spirituality and mental health. Journal for the Study of Spirituality, 10(4), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1080/20440243.2020.1726048
Kumari, A., & Sangwan, S., (2020) .Spirituality and Well-Being of Ageing. International Journal of Social Sciences Review, Haryana, 8(4), 212-214.
Kurd Nuqabi, R. (2018). The book of intellectual psychology, Tehran, Arjmand.
Kütük,H., Hatun,O., Ekşi, F & Ekşi, H. (2022). Investigation of the Relationships Between Mindfulness, Wisdom, Resilience and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adult Population. Published: Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 25 July 2022. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s10942-022-00468-w
Nair, S., Sawant, N., & Thippeswamy, H. (2021). Gender Issues in the Care of Elderly: A Narrative Review. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine, 2(1), 1-4.
Nazemi Ardakani, F., Bahrami, H., Alipor Ahmad, E., & Bayat, N., Effectiveness of religious - spiritual intervention based on Islamic approach on psychological and immune indices in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis. Research Quarterly A Psychological 2016, 6(4),113-131.10.22059/JAPR.2016.57967. [Persian]
Nouri, R., & Bovalhari, J. (2013). Spiritual skills workbook for students. Tehran, Tehran University Publications. [Persian]
Oh, Pok-Ja., & Kim, S. H. (2014) The Effects of spiritual interventions in patients with cancer: A Meta-Analysis. Oncology Nursing Forum, 41(5), 290-301.
Papalia, D., Aldez, S. & Feldman, R. D. (1401). Psychology of human development and evolution. (Translated by Daud Arab Qahestani, Hamayak Avadis Yanes, Hamidreza Sohrabi, Son of Davrpanah, Afsaneh Hayat Roshanai, Siamak Naqshbandi). Tehran, Rushd, 9th edition (original edition, 2014). [Persian].
Rahimi, S., Borjali, B., & Sohrabi, F. (2105). Effectiveness of Positive Psychology Interventions on Resiliency of Female Patients with Multiple Sclerosis. Positive Psychology Research, 1(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/20.1001.1. 24764248.13126.96.36.199.1[Persian]
Rahimpour, S., Arefi, M., & Manshaii, G. R. (202). The Effectiveness of Mixed Method of Time perspective and Mindfulness Education on Resilience and Wisdom. Positive Psychology Research, 7(25), 35-52. [Persian]
Rasoli, R. (2008). Effects of Group Logotherapy on decreasing Depression and Increasing Meaning in life on older adults resident in Sanatorium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(8), 673-685. 20.1001.1.20084331.13188.8.131.52.2 [Persian]
Rego, F & Nunes, R. (2019). The interface between psychology and spirituality in palliative care. Journal of Health Psychology, 24(3). 279–287. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105316664138
Rita, M., Pereira, E. R., Silva, R. C. R. A., Medeiros, A. B. B., & Dias, F. A. (2020). Meaning of life in healthy aging: Contributions from Viktor Frankl’s theory. Family Magazine, Life Cycles and Health in Context Social, 8(4), 943-951.
Rostami, M., Rasouli, M., & Kesai, A. (2018). Comparison of the effect of group counseling based on Spirituality-based Therapy and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) on Reducing Demoralization of the Elderly. Aging Psychology, 4(3) ,165-178. [Persian]
Sadridamirchi, E., Mohamdi, N., Rameani, S., & Amanzd, Z. (1397). The Effectiveness of sirituality group Therapy on happiness and hardiness in elderly women., Journal of Research on Religion and Health, 4(2), 42-53. https://sid.ir/paper/258620/fa. [Persian]
Saif, A. (2017). Introducing behavioral and cognitive therapies of the first, second and third generations with an emphasis on acceptance and commitment therapy. Tehran, Duran Publesher. [Persian]
Santinha, G., Soares, C., & Forte, T. (2023). Strategic Planning as the Core of Active and Healthy Ageing Governance: A Case Study. Sustainability, 15(3), 19-59. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15031959
Sepahrian Azar, F., & Sattari, R. (2015). Examining the focal relationship between wisdom dimensions and identity styles, New Educational Thoughts, 12(2), 114-95. [Persian]
Steger, M. F., Frazier, P., Oishi, S., & Kaler, M. (2006). the meaning in life questionnaire :Assessing the presence of and reach for meaning in life. journal of counseling psychology, 5, 128-137.
Tajvar, M., Yaser,i M., Mahmoud,i., & R, Karami B. (2020). Active Aging Index and Its Individual Determinants in Tehran. School of public Health and Institute of public Health Research, 18(2), 139-158. http://sjsph.tums.ac.ir/article-1-5885-fa.html [Persian]
Tan, C. C., Hashim, H. M., Pheh, K. S., Pratt, C., & Others. (2021). The mediating role of openness to experience and curiosity in the relationship between mindfulness and meaning in life: evidence from four countriesublished, Current Psychology, 42(3), 327–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01430-2
Teoh, S. L., Letchumanan. V., & Lee, L. H. (2021). Can mindfulness help to alleviate loneliness? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Psychol, 41(5), 290-301. https://doi:10.1188/14.ONF.E290-E301
Tizdel, J., Williams, M., & Segal, Z. (2019). Work book on mindfulness. (Translated by Anoushe Aminzadeh). Tehran: Arjmand. (original publication year, 2014)
Verhaeghen, p. (2021). The Examined Life is Wise Living: The Relationship between mindfulness, wisdom, and the moral foundations. Journal of Adult Development, 28(1), 305–322. https://doi. org/10 .1007/s10804-020-09369-7
Webster, I. D. (2007). Measuring the character strength of windson. Iternational Journal of Aging and Human Development, 65(2), 163-182. https://doi.org/10.2190/AG.65.2.d
Yu, E. A & Chang, E. C. (2019).Meaning in life as a predictor of optimism: How parents mattering matters to Asian and European Americans. Personality and Individual Differences. 138, 336-369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.10.031
Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., & Ma, L. (2018). Depression and cardiovascular disease in elderly: current understanding. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 4(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2017. 09.022