رابطه خودکارآمدی و کیفیت زندگی با نقش میانجی بهزیستی روان‌شناختی در سالمندان

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، تهران، ایران

2 گروه آموزشی روان‌شناسی بالینی و کاربردی، دانشگاه علوم پزشکی و خدمات بهداشتی درمانی ایران، تهران، ایران

10.22126/jap.2022.7431.1602

چکیده

فرایند سالمندی با کاهش تدریجی عملکرد سیستم‌های بدن یک فرد بالغ و سالم به فردی آسیب‌پذیر با کاهش در ظرفیت‌های فیزیولوژیک همراه است. بنابراین، امروزه توجه به مؤلفه‌های سلامت در سالمندان اهمیت ویژه‌ای یافته است. این پژوهش با هدف تعیین رابطه خودکارآمدی و کیفیت‌زندگی با نقش میانجی بهزیستی روان‌شناختی در سالمندان شهر تهران انجام شد. روش پژوهش، توصیفی و از نوع همبستگی و معادلات ساختاری بود. جامعه آماری، متشکل از کلیه سالمندان (60 سال به بالا) شهر تهران بود که از این میان 200 نفر به‌صورت نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب شدند. این افراد به پرسشنامه‌های بهزیستی روان‌شناختی ریف، خوکارآمدی عمومی شرر، و کیفیت زندگی سازمان بهداشت جهانی پاسخ دادند. برای تحلیل داده ها از نرم افزارهای SPSS و AMOS و روش‌های همبستگی پیرسون و تحلیل مدل‌یابی معادلات ساختاری استفاده شد. نتایج حاصل از تحلیل معادلات ساختاری نشان داد که مدل مفروض این مطالعه از برازش مناسبی در نمونه مورد مطالعه برخوردار است. بدین‌ترتیب که، خودکارآمدی رابطه مستقیم مثبتی با بهزیستی روان‌شناختی و همچنین رابطه مستقیم مثبتی با کیفیت زندگی دارد. از سویی بهزیستی روان‌شناختی رابطه مستقیم مثبتی با کیفیت زندگی دارد. همچنین مشخص شد بهزیستی روان‌شناختی از طریق خودکارآمدی با کیفیت زندگی رابطه غیرمستقیم دارد. این نتایج بر اهمیت بهبود شرایط زندگی سالمندان بر اساس سلامت روان‌شناختی و میزان احساس راحتی در هنگام برخورد با شرایط دشوار اشاره می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Relationship Between Self-Efficacy and Quality of Life Through the Mediating Role of Psychological Well-Being in the Elderly

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Javad Bagheri 1
  • Aliasghar Asgharnejad Farid 2
  • Bita Nasrolahi 1
1 Dept. of Psychology, Azad University, Science and Research Branch of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
2 Dept. of Clinical and Applied Psychology, Iran University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aging process is associated with a gradual decline in the function of the body systems of a healthy and matured adult to a vulnerable individual with a decrease in physiological capacity. Therefore, nowadays, paying attention to the components of health in healthy people has gained especial importance. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life with the mediating role of psychological well-being in the elderly in Tehran, Iran. This was a descriptive study, of correlational type with structural equations modeling (SEM). The statistical population consisted of all the elderly (60 years and older) living in Tehran, among whom 200 people were selected using convenience sampling. Participants responded to the Ryff’s psychological well-being, Sherer's general self-efficacy and World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaires. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and SEM were used to analyse data in SPSS and AMOS software. The results of SEM illustrated that the hypothetical model of this study has a good fit in the study sample. Thus, self-efficacy had a direct positive relationship with psychological well-being and also with quality of life. Besides, psychological well-being had a direct positive relationship with quality of life. It was also found that psychological well-being is indirectly related to quality of life through self-efficacy. The results indicate the importance of improving the living conditions of the elderly based on mental health and the degree of feeling comfortable when dealing with difficult situations.
References
Abhar Zanjani, F. (2022). The Effectiveness of Quality of Life Skills Training on Hope, Vitality and Resilience of the Elderly, 7th National Conference on Positive Psychology News, Bandar Abbas. [Persian]
Adinehpour, M., Talebzadeh, M., & Mohammadi, F. (2018). The Relationship between psychological well-being and self-efficacy in women. the 5th National Conference on Recent Innovations in Psychology, Applications and Empowerment with a focus on psychotherapy, Tehran. [Persian]
Amirbagloie Daryani, M., & Marashi, M. (2021). Feeling guilty and anxiety in the elderly: the role of Existential Concerns. Aging Psychology, 7(1), 29-41. [Persian]
Asgharnejad, T., Ahmadi Dehghotboddini, M., Farzad V., & Khodapanahi M. (2006). Psychometric properties of sherer's general self-efficacy scale, Journal of Psychology, 10(3 (39)), 262-274. [Persian]
Bolognesi, C., Migliore, L., Lista, F., Caroli, S., Patriarca, M., De Angelis, R., & Colognato, R. (2015). Biological monitoring of Italian soldiers deployed in Iraq. Results of the SIGNUM project. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 12(1), 20-31.
Bosscher, R., Smit, J. (1998). Confirmatory factor analaysis of the general self-efficacy scale. behavioral and therapy, 36(3), 339-343.
Briggs, A. M., Cross, M. J., Hoy, D. G., Sanchez-Riera, L., Blyth, F. M., Woolf, A. D., & March, L. (2016). Musculoskeletal health conditions represent a global threat to healthy aging: a report for the 2015 World Health Organization world report on ageing and health. The Gerontologist, 56(2), 243-255
Crous, G. (2017). Child psychological well-being and its associations with material deprivation and type of home. Children and Youth Services Review, 80(8), 88-95.
Ekestein., S M. (2020). Elderly Care: Current Issues and Challenges, Nova Science Publishers.
Erkutlu, H. (2014). Exploring the moderating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between narcissism and psychological well-being. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150(8), 1148-1156.
Fouladiyan, M., Amir, A., & Fatemi amin, Z. (2019). A study on the social status of elderlies (comparison between elderlies living home with those living nursing homes). Journal of Social Problems of Iran, 10(1), 145-165. [Persian]
Haji Yousefi, A. (2019). Aging and mental health. Tehran: Roshan Nasl Publications. [Persain]
Hamid, N., Vatankhah, M., & Mehrabizadeh-Honarmad, M. (2013). The efficacy of quality of life group training on happiness and vitalty of aged men. Journal of Medical Science Studies, 24 (10), 800-811. [Persian]
Hamilton, K., Cornish, S., Kirkpatrick, A., Kroon, J., & Schwarzer, R. (2018). Parental supervision for their children's toothbrushing: Mediating effects of planning, self‐efficacy, and action control. British journal of health psychology, 23(2), 387-406.
Hamzehlouiyan, M., Besharat, M., Rahiminezhad, A., Zamanian, H., & Farahani, H. (2019). The Role of meaning, peace and faith in quality of life dimensions of women with cancer. Developmental Psychology, 15(59), 237-248. [Persian]
Han, W., & Shibusawa, T. (2015). Trajectory of physical health, cognitive status, and psychological well-being among Chinese elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60(1), 168-177.
Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Garland, E. L. (2017). Self-interest may not be entirely in the interest of the self: Association between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 117(9), 166-171.
Heintzelman, S. J., & Diener, E. (2019). Subjective well-being, social interpretation, and relationship thriving. Journal of Research in Personality, 78(2), 93-105.
Huang, C. (2016). Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research
Javer, M., Rafiepoor, A., & Sabet, M. (2020). Relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life and the mediating role of perceived stress in people with cardiovascular disease: A structural equation model. Iranian Journal of cardiovascular Nursing, 9(1), 2-15. [Persian]
Khanjani, M., Shahidi, S., Fathabadi, J., Mazaheri, M., & Shokri, O. (2014). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Ryff’s scale of Psychological well-being, short form (18-item) among male and female students. Thoughts and Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 9(32), 27-36. [Persian]
Liu, C., Cheng, Y., Hsu, A. S., Chen, C., Liu, J., & Yu, G. (2018). Optimism and self-efficacy mediate the association between shyness and subjective well-being among Chinese working adults. PloS one, 13(4), Article e0194559.
Mahmoudi Philabadi, A., & Nikrahang Gh R. (2017). The effectiveness of quality of life therapy on general health, life satisfaction, happiness and hope of the elderly, The third national conference on new studies and research in the field of educational sciences and psychology in Iran. [Persian]
Milam, L. A., Cohen, G. L., Mueller, C., & Salles, A. (2019). The Relationship between self-efficacy and well-being among surgical residents. Journal of surgical education, 76(2), 321-328.
Momeni, K., Amani, R., Janjani, P., Majzoobi, M., & Hadian Hamedani, K. (2021). The Relationship between attachment styles with Positive and negative affect in the elderly: the mediating role of reminiscence styles. Aging Psychology, 7(4), 407-422. [Persian]
Mortezabeigi, Z., Safari, A., Bozorghkhoo, Z., & Asgharnejad Farid, A. (2022). Predicting the happiness based on self-efficacy and quality of life by mediating of psychological well-being. Payesh, 21 (1), 47-57. [Persian]
Narimani, M., samadifard, H. (2017). Social health in the elderly: The Role of self-esteem, self-efficiency and happiness. Aging Psychology, 3(3), 199-206. [Persian]
Naseh L., Shaikhy R.A., & Rafiei H. (2016). General self-efficacy and associated factors among elderly residents of nursing home, Journal of holistic nursing and midwifery, 25(80), 90-97. [Persian]
Nejat S., Montazeri, A., Holakouee Naeini, K., Mohammad, K., & Majdzadeh, R. (2006). Standardization of the World health organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF): translation and psychometrics of the iranian species. Journal of the School of Health and the Institute of Health Research, 4 (4), 1-12. [Persian]
Nowruzi, A., & Momeni Yansari, A. (2012). General self-efficacy, life expectancy and life orientation in older women receiving education. Contemporary Psychology, 7, 3146-3149. [Persian]
Orang. S., Hashemi Razini, H., Ramshini, M., & Orang, T. (2018). Investigating the meaning of life and psychological well-being, in youth, adults, and elderly (A Comparative Study of Three Age Groups). Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing, 13 (2), 182-197. [Persian]
Peters, M., Potter, C. M., Kelly, L., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2019). Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of primary care patients with multi-morbidity. Health and quality of life outcomes, 17(1), 37.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-being. Social science research, 35(4), 1103-1119.
Sasani, K., Seirafi, M., Mesch, F., Sarami, G., & Peymani, J. (2020). Modeling of health-related quality of life based on self-approach to body image by mediating of self-compassion and shame in overweight and obese people. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research, 14 (6), 78-87. [Persian]
Seif, A. (2018). Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning and Teaching. Roshd Publications. [Persian]
Shaabani, J., Rahgoi, A., Nourozi, K., Rahgozar, M., & Shaabani, M. (2017). The Relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life among elderly people. salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing., 11 (4), 518-527. [Persian]
Shafiei, H., & Nasiri, S. (2020). The role of health literacy, psychological well-being and self –efficacy in prediction the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes. Quarterly Journal of HealthPsychology 9(33), 7-22. [Persian]
Sherer, M., & Maddux, J. (1982). The self- efficacy scale: constraction and varidation. Psychological Report, 51(2), 663-671.
Soleimani, R. (2020). Investigating the relationship between happiness, psychological well-being and self-efficacy with the quality of life of students in Rasht. Master Thesis of Koushiar Institute of Higher Education. [Persian]
solhi, M., bararpour, F. &, hosseini, F. (2018). Self-efficacy and quality of life in elderly residents of Kahrizak. Journal of Geriatric Nursing, 4 (4), 9-19. [Persian]
sori, A., Shabani Moghadam, K., Soury, R. (2016). The Effect of physical activity on quality of life in elder women in Kermanshah province. Applied Research in Sport Management, 4(4), 75-84. [Persian]
Taneva, S. (2016). What is psychological well-being and how it changes throughout the employment cycle? UnicampBFCM
 Tourani, S., Behzadifar, M., Martini, M., Aryankheal, A., Taheri Mirghaed, M., Salemi, M., Behzadifr, M.., & Bragazzi, N. L. (2018). Health-related quality of life among healthy elderly Iranians: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(1), Article 18.
Vahedi Kojnagh, H., Afshari, A., Rezaei Malajagh, R., Eghbali, A., & Taheri, M. (2020). The Prediction of the elderly’s life satisfaction based on health-promoting lifestyle. Aging Psychology, 6(3), 285-297. [Persain]
Varaee, P., Momeni, K., & Moradi, A. (2018). Self-compassion, attitude towardsrReligion and death anxiety: predictors of psychological well-being in the elderly. Journal of Developmental Psychology: Iranian Psychologists, 14(56), 445-460. [Persian]
World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization.
Yeung, D. Y. (2015). Aging and Psychological WellBeing. Encyclopedia of Geropsychology, 1-6.
Zhou, W., He, G., Gao, J., Yuan, Q., Feng, C., & Zhang, C. K. (2012). The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self-esteem, and affect balance of Chinese community-dwelling elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(3), 440-447.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Self-efficacy
  • psychological well-being
  • quality of life
  • the elderly
ابهرزنجانی، ف. (1400). اثربخشی آموزش مهارت های مبتنی بر کیفیت زندگی بر امیدواری، سرزندگی و تاب­آوری سالمندان. هفتمین همایش ملی تازه­های روانشناسی مثبت ­نگر، بندرعباس.
آدینه پور، م.، طالب زاده، م.، و محمدی، ف. (1398).رابطه بهزیستی روانشناختی با خودکارآمدی در زنان. پنجمین کنفرانس ملی نوآوری های اخیر در روانشناسی، کاربردها و توانمندسازی با محوریت رواندرمانی، تهران.
اصغرنژاد، ط.، احمدی ده­قطب­الدینی، م.، فرزاد. و.، و خداپناهی، م. (1385). مطالعه ویژگی های روانسنجی مقیاس خودکارآمدی عمومی شرر. روانشناسی، 10(3)،273-262.
امیربگلوی داریانی، م.، و مرعشی، م. (1400). احساس گناه و اضطراب در سالمندان: نقش نگرانی‌های وجودی. روان‌شناسی پیری، 7(1)، 41-29.
اورنگ، س.، هاشمی رزینی، ه.، رامشینی، م.، و اورنگ، ط. (1397). بررسی معنای زندگی و بهزیستی روانشناختی. جوانان، بزرگسالان و سالمندان (مطالعه مقایسه‌ای از نظر سن.سالمند، 11(49)، 197-187.
جاور، م.، رفیعی پور، ا.، و ثابت، م. (1399). معادلات ساختاری رابطه خودکارآمدی با کیفیت ­ندگی و نقش میانجی استرس درک­­­شده در افراد با بیماری قلبی­ عروقی. نشریه پرستاری قلب و عروق، ۹ (۱)، 15-2.
حاجی یوسفی، ا. (1398). سالمندی و سلامت روانی. تهران: نسل روشن.
حمزه لوئیان، م.، بشارت، م.، رحیمی ­نژاد، ع.، زمانیان، ه.، و فراهانی، ح. (1398). نقش معنا، صلح و ایمان در ابعاد کیفیت زندگی زنان مبتلا به سرطان. روان شناسی روان تحولی: روان شناسان ایرانی، 15(59)، 248-237.
حمید، ن.، وطن خواه، م.، و مهرابی زاده هنرمند، م. (1392). اثربخشی آموزش مهارت های کیفت زندگی به شیوه گروهی بر شادکامی و سرزندگی سالمندان مرد شهر اهواز. مجله مطالعات علوم پزشکی (مجله پزشکی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ارومیه)، 24(10)، 811-800.
خانجانی، م.، شهیدی، ش.، فتح­آبادی، ج.، مظاهری، م.، و شکری، ا. (1393). ساختار عاملی و ویژگی­های روان سنجی فرم کوتاه ( 18 سؤالی) مقیاس بهزیستی­روان شناختی ریف در دانشجویان دختر و پسر. اندیشه و رفتار، 8(32)، 37-27.
ساسانی،ک.، صیرفی، م ر.، مسچی ف.، صرامی، غ ر، و پیمانی، ج. (1398). مدل‌یابی کیفیت زندگی مرتبط با سلامت بر مبنای نگرش فردی به تصویر بدنی: بررسی نقش میانجی‌گری شفقت به خود و شرم در افراد چاق و دارای اضافه وزن. پژوهش پرستاری، ۱۴ (۶)،87-78.
سلیمانی، ر. (1399). بررسی رابطه شادکامی، بهزیستی روان شناختی و خودکارآمدی با کیفیت زندگی دانشجویان شهر رشت. پایان­نامه کارشناسی ارشد موسسه آموزش عالی کوشیار.
سوری، ا.، شعبانی مقدم، ک.، و سوری، ر ا. (1395). رابطه بین فعالیت بدنی و کیفیت زندگی زنان سالمند استان کرمانشاه. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی پژوهش­های کاربردی در مدیریت ورزشی، 4(16)، 75-84.
سیف، ع. (1397). روانشناسی پرورشی: روانشناسی یادگیری و آموزش. انتشارات رشد.
شعبانی، ج.، رهگوی، ا.، نوروزی، ک.، رهگذر، م.، و شعبانی، م. (1395). ارتباط خودکارآمدی و کیفیت زندگی سالمندان مقیم آسایشگاه­های شهر تهران. مجله سالمند، 43، 527 – 519.
شفیعی، ح .، و نصیری، ش. (1399). نقش سواد سلامت، بهزیستی روان‌شناختی و خودکارآمدی در پیش‌بینی کیفیت زندگی بیماران مبتلابه دیابت نوع 2. روان شناسی سلامت، 9(33) ، 22-7.
صلحی، م.، برارپور، ف.، و حسینی، ف. (1397). ارتباط خودکارآمدی و کیفیت­زندگی در سالمندان مقیم کهریزک. فصلنامه پرستاری سالمندان. ۴ (۴)، 9-19.
فولادیان، م.، امیر، آ.، و فاطمی امین، ز. (1398). بررسی احساس منزلت اجتماعی سالمندان: مقایسه سالمندان مقیم در مراکز نگهداری شهر مشهد با سالمندان غیرمقیم. بررسی مسائل اجتماعی ایران، 10(1)، 165-145.
محمودی فیل­آبادی، ا.، و نیکراهان، غ ر. (1396). اثربخشی کیفیت­زندگی درمانی بر سلامت عمومی، رضایت از زندگی، شادی وامید سالمندان، سومین همایش ملی مطالعات و تحقیقات نوین در حوزه علوم تربیتی و روانشناسی ایران.
مرتضی بیگی، ز.، صفری،ع ر.، بزرگ خو، از.، و اصغر نژاد فرید، ع. (1400). پیش‌بینی شادکامی بر اساس خودکارآمدی و کیفیت زندگی با میانجی‌گری بهزیستی روان‌شناختی. پایش. 21(1)، 57-47.
مؤمنی، خ.، امانی، ر.، جانجانی، پ.، مجذوبی، م.، و هادیان همدانی، ک. (1400). رابطه سبک‌های دلبستگی و عواطف مثبت و منفی در سالمندان: نقش میانجی سبک‌های خاطره‌پردازی. روان‌شناسی پیری، 7(4)، 422-407.
ناصح، ل.، شیخی، ر.، و رفیعی، ح. (1395). خودکارآمدی عمومی و عوامل مرتبط با آن در سالمندان مقیم سرای سالمندی. پرستاری و مامایی جامع­نگر، 26 (80)، 97-90.
نجات س ن.، منتظری، ع.، هلاکویی نایینی، ک.، محمد، ک.، و مجدزاده، ر. (1385). استانداردسازی پرسشنامه کیفیت زندگی سازمان جهانی بهداشت (WHOQOL-BREF): ترجمه و روان سنجی گونه ایرانی. مجله دانشکده بهداشت و انستیتو تحقیقات بهداشتی. 4(4)، 12-1.
نریمانی، م و صمدی­فر، ح. (1397).سلامت اجتماعی در سالمندان: نقش عزت نفس، خودکارآمدی و شادکامی، روانشناسی پیری،3(3)، 206-199.
نوروزی، ا.، و مؤمنی یانسری، ع.(1391). خودکارآمدی عمومی، امید به زندگی و جهت گیری زندگی در زنان سالمند بهره­مند از آموزش. روانشناسی معاصر، 7، 3149-3146.
واحدی کوجنق، ح.، افشاری، ع.، رضایی ملاجق، ر.، اقبالی، ع.، و طایری، م. (1399). پیش‌بینی رضایت از زندگی سالمندان بر اساس سبک زندگی ارتقا‌دهنده سلامت.روان‌شناسی پیری، 6(3)، 297-285.
ورعی، پ.، مومنی، خ م.، و مرادی،آ. (1397). خودشفقت ورزی،بازخورد به دین و اضطراب مرگ: پیش بین های بهزیستی روانشناختی در سالمندان. روان شناسی روان تحولی: روان شناسان ایران، 14(56)، 460-445.
References
Abhar Zanjani, F. (2022). The Effectiveness of Quality of Life Skills Training on Hope, Vitality and Resilience of the Elderly, 7th National Conference on Positive Psychology News, Bandar Abbas. [Persian]
Adinehpour, M., Talebzadeh, M., & Mohammadi, F. (2018). The Relationship between psychological well-being and self-efficacy in women. the 5th National Conference on Recent Innovations in Psychology, Applications and Empowerment with a focus on psychotherapy, Tehran. [Persian]
Amirbagloie Daryani, M., & Marashi, M. (2021). Feeling guilty and anxiety in the elderly: the role of Existential Concerns. Aging Psychology, 7(1), 29-41. [Persian]
Asgharnejad, T., Ahmadi Dehghotboddini, M., Farzad V., & Khodapanahi M. (2006). Psychometric properties of sherer's general self-efficacy scale, Journal of Psychology, 10(3 (39)), 262-274. [Persian]
Bolognesi, C., Migliore, L., Lista, F., Caroli, S., Patriarca, M., De Angelis, R., & Colognato, R. (2015). Biological monitoring of Italian soldiers deployed in Iraq. Results of the SIGNUM project. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 12(1), 20-31.
Bosscher, R., Smit, J. (1998). Confirmatory factor analaysis of the general self-efficacy scale. behavioral and therapy, 36(3), 339-343.
Briggs, A. M., Cross, M. J., Hoy, D. G., Sanchez-Riera, L., Blyth, F. M., Woolf, A. D., & March, L. (2016). Musculoskeletal health conditions represent a global threat to healthy aging: a report for the 2015 World Health Organization world report on ageing and health. The Gerontologist, 56(2), 243-255
Crous, G. (2017). Child psychological well-being and its associations with material deprivation and type of home. Children and Youth Services Review, 80(8), 88-95.
Ekestein., S M. (2020). Elderly Care: Current Issues and Challenges, Nova Science Publishers.
Erkutlu, H. (2014). Exploring the moderating effect of psychological capital on the relationship between narcissism and psychological well-being. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 150(8), 1148-1156.
Fouladiyan, M., Amir, A., & Fatemi amin, Z. (2019). A study on the social status of elderlies (comparison between elderlies living home with those living nursing homes). Journal of Social Problems of Iran, 10(1), 145-165. [Persian]
Haji Yousefi, A. (2019). Aging and mental health. Tehran: Roshan Nasl Publications. [Persain]
Hamid, N., Vatankhah, M., & Mehrabizadeh-Honarmad, M. (2013). The efficacy of quality of life group training on happiness and vitalty of aged men. Journal of Medical Science Studies, 24 (10), 800-811. [Persian]
Hamilton, K., Cornish, S., Kirkpatrick, A., Kroon, J., & Schwarzer, R. (2018). Parental supervision for their children's toothbrushing: Mediating effects of planning, self‐efficacy, and action control. British journal of health psychology, 23(2), 387-406.
Hamzehlouiyan, M., Besharat, M., Rahiminezhad, A., Zamanian, H., & Farahani, H. (2019). The Role of meaning, peace and faith in quality of life dimensions of women with cancer. Developmental Psychology, 15(59), 237-248. [Persian]
Han, W., & Shibusawa, T. (2015). Trajectory of physical health, cognitive status, and psychological well-being among Chinese elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 60(1), 168-177.
Hanley, A. W., Baker, A. K., & Garland, E. L. (2017). Self-interest may not be entirely in the interest of the self: Association between selflessness, dispositional mindfulness and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 117(9), 166-171.
Heintzelman, S. J., & Diener, E. (2019). Subjective well-being, social interpretation, and relationship thriving. Journal of Research in Personality, 78(2), 93-105.
Huang, C. (2016). Achievement goals and self-efficacy: A meta-analysis. Educational Research
Javer, M., Rafiepoor, A., & Sabet, M. (2020). Relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life and the mediating role of perceived stress in people with cardiovascular disease: A structural equation model. Iranian Journal of cardiovascular Nursing, 9(1), 2-15. [Persian]
Khanjani, M., Shahidi, S., Fathabadi, J., Mazaheri, M., & Shokri, O. (2014). Factor structure and psychometric properties of the Ryff’s scale of Psychological well-being, short form (18-item) among male and female students. Thoughts and Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 9(32), 27-36. [Persian]
Liu, C., Cheng, Y., Hsu, A. S., Chen, C., Liu, J., & Yu, G. (2018). Optimism and self-efficacy mediate the association between shyness and subjective well-being among Chinese working adults. PloS one, 13(4), Article e0194559.
Mahmoudi Philabadi, A., & Nikrahang Gh R. (2017). The effectiveness of quality of life therapy on general health, life satisfaction, happiness and hope of the elderly, The third national conference on new studies and research in the field of educational sciences and psychology in Iran. [Persian]
Milam, L. A., Cohen, G. L., Mueller, C., & Salles, A. (2019). The Relationship between self-efficacy and well-being among surgical residents. Journal of surgical education, 76(2), 321-328.
Momeni, K., Amani, R., Janjani, P., Majzoobi, M., & Hadian Hamedani, K. (2021). The Relationship between attachment styles with Positive and negative affect in the elderly: the mediating role of reminiscence styles. Aging Psychology, 7(4), 407-422. [Persian]
Mortezabeigi, Z., Safari, A., Bozorghkhoo, Z., & Asgharnejad Farid, A. (2022). Predicting the happiness based on self-efficacy and quality of life by mediating of psychological well-being. Payesh, 21 (1), 47-57. [Persian]
Narimani, M., samadifard, H. (2017). Social health in the elderly: The Role of self-esteem, self-efficiency and happiness. Aging Psychology, 3(3), 199-206. [Persian]
Naseh L., Shaikhy R.A., & Rafiei H. (2016). General self-efficacy and associated factors among elderly residents of nursing home, Journal of holistic nursing and midwifery, 25(80), 90-97. [Persian]
Nejat S., Montazeri, A., Holakouee Naeini, K., Mohammad, K., & Majdzadeh, R. (2006). Standardization of the World health organization quality of life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF): translation and psychometrics of the iranian species. Journal of the School of Health and the Institute of Health Research, 4 (4), 1-12. [Persian]
Nowruzi, A., & Momeni Yansari, A. (2012). General self-efficacy, life expectancy and life orientation in older women receiving education. Contemporary Psychology, 7, 3146-3149. [Persian]
Orang. S., Hashemi Razini, H., Ramshini, M., & Orang, T. (2018). Investigating the meaning of life and psychological well-being, in youth, adults, and elderly (A Comparative Study of Three Age Groups). Salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing, 13 (2), 182-197. [Persian]
Peters, M., Potter, C. M., Kelly, L., & Fitzpatrick, R. (2019). Self-efficacy and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional study of primary care patients with multi-morbidity. Health and quality of life outcomes, 17(1), 37.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68-78.
Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 57(6), 1069-1081.
Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2006). Best news yet on the six-factor model of well-being. Social science research, 35(4), 1103-1119.
Sasani, K., Seirafi, M., Mesch, F., Sarami, G., & Peymani, J. (2020). Modeling of health-related quality of life based on self-approach to body image by mediating of self-compassion and shame in overweight and obese people. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research, 14 (6), 78-87. [Persian]
Seif, A. (2018). Educational Psychology: The Psychology of Learning and Teaching. Roshd Publications. [Persian]
Shaabani, J., Rahgoi, A., Nourozi, K., Rahgozar, M., & Shaabani, M. (2017). The Relationship between self-efficacy and quality of life among elderly people. salmand: Iranian Journal of Ageing., 11 (4), 518-527. [Persian]
Shafiei, H., & Nasiri, S. (2020). The role of health literacy, psychological well-being and self –efficacy in prediction the quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes. Quarterly Journal of HealthPsychology 9(33), 7-22. [Persian]
Sherer, M., & Maddux, J. (1982). The self- efficacy scale: constraction and varidation. Psychological Report, 51(2), 663-671.
Soleimani, R. (2020). Investigating the relationship between happiness, psychological well-being and self-efficacy with the quality of life of students in Rasht. Master Thesis of Koushiar Institute of Higher Education. [Persian]
solhi, M., bararpour, F. &, hosseini, F. (2018). Self-efficacy and quality of life in elderly residents of Kahrizak. Journal of Geriatric Nursing, 4 (4), 9-19. [Persian]
sori, A., Shabani Moghadam, K., Soury, R. (2016). The Effect of physical activity on quality of life in elder women in Kermanshah province. Applied Research in Sport Management, 4(4), 75-84. [Persian]
Taneva, S. (2016). What is psychological well-being and how it changes throughout the employment cycle? UnicampBFCM
 Tourani, S., Behzadifar, M., Martini, M., Aryankheal, A., Taheri Mirghaed, M., Salemi, M., Behzadifr, M.., & Bragazzi, N. L. (2018). Health-related quality of life among healthy elderly Iranians: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 16(1), Article 18.
Vahedi Kojnagh, H., Afshari, A., Rezaei Malajagh, R., Eghbali, A., & Taheri, M. (2020). The Prediction of the elderly’s life satisfaction based on health-promoting lifestyle. Aging Psychology, 6(3), 285-297. [Persain]
Varaee, P., Momeni, K., & Moradi, A. (2018). Self-compassion, attitude towardsrReligion and death anxiety: predictors of psychological well-being in the elderly. Journal of Developmental Psychology: Iranian Psychologists, 14(56), 445-460. [Persian]
World Health Organization. (2015). World report on ageing and health. World Health Organization.
Yeung, D. Y. (2015). Aging and Psychological WellBeing. Encyclopedia of Geropsychology, 1-6.
Zhou, W., He, G., Gao, J., Yuan, Q., Feng, C., & Zhang, C. K. (2012). The effects of group reminiscence therapy on depression, self-esteem, and affect balance of Chinese community-dwelling elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 54(3), 440-447.